Ubuntu Filesystem Hierarchy Standard

Filesystem Hierarchy Standard(Éditer)

c.f. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Filesystem_Hierarchy_Standard

The majority of these directories exist in all UNIX operating systems and are generally used in much the same way; however, the descriptions here are those used specifically for the FHS, and are not considered authoritative for platforms other than Linux.

  • / Primary hierarchy root and root directory of the entire file system hierarchy.
  • /bin/ Essential command binaries that need to be available in single user mode; for all users, e.g., cat, ls, cp.
  • /boot/ Boot loader files, e.g., kernels, initrd; often a separate partition8
  • /dev/ Essential devices, e.g., /dev/null.
  • /etc/ Host-specific system-wide configuration files

There has been controversy over the meaning of the name itself. In early versions of the UNIX Implementation Document from Bell labs, /etc is referred to as the /etcetra directory, as this directory historically held everything that did not belong elsewhere (however, the FHS restricts /etc to static configuration files and may not contain binaries). Since the publication of early documentation, the directory name has been re-designated in various ways. Recent interpretations include Backronyms such as "Editable Text Configuration" or "Extended Tool Chest".

  • /etc/opt/ Configuration files for /opt/.
  • /etc/X11/ Configuration files for the X Window System, version 11.
  • /etc/sgml/ Configuration files for SGML.
  • /etc/xml/ Configuration files for XML.
  • /home/ Users' home directories, containing saved files, personal settings, etc.; often a separate partition.
  • /lib/ Libraries essential for the binaries in /bin/ and /sbin/.
  • /media/ Mount points for removable media such as CD-ROMs (appeared in FHS-2.3).
  • /mnt/ Temporarily mounted filesystems.
  • /opt/ Optional application software packages.
  • /proc/ Virtual filesystem documenting kernel and process status as text files, e.g., uptime, network. In Linux, corresponds to a Procfs mount.
  • /root/ Home directory for the root user.
  • /sbin/ Essential system binaries, e.g., init, ip, mount.
  • /srv/ Site-specific data which is served by the system.
  • /tmp/ Temporary files (see also /var/tmp). Often not preserved between system reboots.
  • /usr/ Secondary hierarchy for read-only user data; contains the majority of (multi-)user utilities and applications.13
    • /usr/bin/ Non-essential command binaries (not needed in single user mode); for all users.
    • /usr/include/ Standard include files.
    • /usr/lib/ Libraries for the binaries in /usr/bin/ and /usr/sbin/.
    • /usr/sbin/ Non-essential system binaries, e.g., daemons for various network-services.
    • /usr/share/ Architecture-independent (shared) data.
    • /usr/src/ Source code, e.g., the kernel source code with its header files.
    • /usr/X11R6/ X Window System, Version 11, Release 6.
    • /usr/local/ Tertiary hierarchy for local data, specific to this host. Typically has further subdirectories, e.g., bin/, lib/, share/.14
  • /var/ Variable files—files whose content is expected to continually change during normal operation of the system—such as logs, spool files, and temporary e-mail files. Sometimes a separate partition.
    • /var/cache/ Application cache data. Such data is locally generated as a result of time-consuming I/O or calculation. The application must be able to regenerate or restore the data. The cached files can be deleted without data loss
    • /var/lib/ State information. Persistent data modified by programs as they run, e.g., databases, packaging system metadata, etc.
    • /var/lock/ Lock files. Files keeping track of resources currently in use.
    • /var/log/ Log files. Various logs.
    • /var/mail/ Users' mailboxes.
    • /var/run/ Information about the running system since last boot, e.g., currently logged-in users and running daemons.
    • /var/spool/ Spool for tasks waiting to be processed, e.g., print queues and unread mail.
    • /var/spool/mail/ Deprecated location for users' mailboxes.
    • /var/tmp/ Temporary files to be preserved between reboots.